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The arts and politics became increasingly influenced by the court (see Orlando di Lasso, Heinrich Schütz and later Mozart and Richard Wagner).During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, and also of renaissance arts.Munich is home to many universities, museums and theatres.Its numerous architectural attractions, sports events, exhibitions and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism.Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reformation, and also built the Hofbräuhaus for brewing brown beer in 1589. In 1623, during the Thirty Years' War, Munich became electoral residence when Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria was invested with the electoral dignity, but in 1632 the city was occupied by Gustav II Adolph of Sweden.When the bubonic plague broke out in 16, about one third of the population died.
During World War II, Munich was heavily bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed.
Especially Ludwig I rendered outstanding services to Munich's status as a centre of the arts, attracting numerous artists and enhancing the city's architectural substance with grand boulevards and buildings.
On the other hand, Ludwig II, famous the world over as the fairytale king, was mostly aloof from his capital and focused more on his fanciful castles in the Bavarian countryside.
The foundation date is considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document. By then, the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route.
In 1175, Munich received city status and fortification.